He had nine sisters and one brother. His parents were leaseholders of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans.
Djoser[ edit ] Djoser was the first or second king of the 3rd Dynasty ca. It sets several important precedents, perhaps the most important of which is its status as the first monumental structure made of stone.
The social implications of such a large and carefully sculpted stone structure are staggering. This suggests that the state, and therefore the royal government had a new level of control of resources, both material and human. Also, from this point on, kings of the Old Kingdom are buried in the North, rather than at Abydos.
Finally, another intriguing first is the identification of the architect Imhotepwho is credited with the design and construction of the complex. The most relevant precedent is found at Saqqara mastaba This would have been an elongated Joser essay pyramid if the remaining side had not been left uncovered.
Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data are available. Step Pyramid Complex, Saqqara. Temples of the festival complex. Several are discussed below with attention paid to function and form.
The pyramid was not simply a grave in ancient Egypt. Its purpose was to facilitate a successful afterlife for the king so that he could be eternally reborn. The symbolism of the step pyramid form, which did not survive the 3rd Dynasty, is unknown, but it has been suggested that it may be a monumental symbol of the crown, especially the royal mortuary cult, since seven small step pyramids not tombs were built in Joser essay provinces.
The complex covers 15ha and is about 2. The pyramid temple is situated at the north side of the pyramid, whereas in later pyramids it is on the east side.
Also, the Djoser complex is built on a North-South axis whereas later complexes utilize an East-West axis. Furthermore, the Djoser complex has one niched enclosure wall, whereas later pyramids have two enclosure walls with the outside one being smooth and the inside one sometimes niched.
This arrangement resembles Early Dynastic funerary enclosures at Abydos in which the entrance was on the east side.
The functional door at the southeast end of the complex leads to a narrow passageway that connects to the roofed colonnade. The trench measures m long and 40 m wide and is a rectangle on a North-South axis.
The walls of the trench were originally decorated with niches and its function seems to have been to make entry into the complex more difficult.
The roofed colonnade led from the enclosure wall to the south of the complex. Beyond this portal was a hall with twenty pairs of limestone columns composed of drum shaped segments built to look like bundles of plant stems and reaching a height of 6.
Between the columns on both sides of the hall were small chambers, which some Egyptologists propose may have been for each of the provinces of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Within the court are curved stones thought to be territorial markers associated with the Heb-sed festivalan important ritual completed by Egyptian kings typically after 30 years on the throne to renew their powers.
It has been suggested that this was a platform for the double throne. This fits into the theory proposed by Barry Kemp, and generally accepted by many, that suggests the whole step pyramid complex symbolizes the royal palace enclosure and allows the king to eternally perform the rituals associated with kingship.
South Tomb[ edit ] Relief of Djoser facing the temple of Horus of Behedet modern Edfu in a blue faience chamber of the south tomb.
The South Tomb has been likened to the satellite pyramids of later Dynasties, and has been proposed to house the ka in the afterlife. These proposals stem from the fact that the granite burial vault is much too small to have facilitated an actual burial.
The staircase then continues east and leads to a gallery that imitates the blue chambers below the step pyramid. Three chambers of this substructure are decorated in blue faience to imitate reed-mat facades, just like the pyramid.
This highlights the fact that this impressive craftsmanship was not meant for the benefit of the living but was meant to ensure the king had all the tools necessary for a successful afterlife.
The pyramid began as a square mastaba this designation as a mastaba is contended for several reasons M1 which was gradually enlarged, first evenly on all four sides M2 and later just on the east side M3.
The fact that the initial mastaba was square has led many to believe that the monument was never meant to be a mastaba, as no other known mastabas had ever been square.
Like in the construction of the mastaba, they built a crude core of rough stones and then cased them in fine limestone with packing in between.
The major difference is that in mastaba construction they laid horizontal courses, but for the pyramid layers, they built in accretion layers that leaned inwards, while using blocks that were both bigger and higher quality.See what Jose R.
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