I will boil some water using a kettle. I will then pour the hot water into a beaker; from here I must move fast before the temperature falls below my starting point. The beaker will be wrapped in one of the selected materials, supported by elastic bands. I will record the temperature of the water over a 20 minute period.
This research presents an evaluative energy model for estimating the energy efficiency of the design choices of architects and engineers in the early design phase.
We analyze the effects of various parameters with different characteristics in various combinations for building energy consumption. With this analysis, we build a database that identifies a set of heuristic rules for energy-efficient building design to facilitate the design of sustainable apartment housing.
Perturbation studies are based on a sensitivity analysis used to identify the thermal influence of the input design parameters on various simulation outputs and compare the results to a reference case.
Energy sensitivity weight factors are obtained from an extensive sensitivity study using building energy simulations. The results of the energy sensitivity study summarized in a set of heuristic rules for evaluating architectural features are estimated through case studies of Korean apartment buildings.
This study offers valuable guidelines for developing energy-efficient residential housing in Korea and will help architects in considering appropriate design schemes and provide a ready reference to generalized test cases for both architects and engineers so that they can zero in on a set of effective design solutions.
Introduction To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, various regulations and policies have been enacted for energy reduction in the building sector. The building sector comprises more than 40 percent of the total energy consumption in the world and occupies the highest portion of the total energy load in Korea [ 12 ].
As the Korean government has pursued reducing residential energy use [ 567 ], many researchers have studied and derived residential energy consumption models to construct energy efficient apartment housings in Korea.
Therefore, it is necessary to provide designers and architects with design decision support models to assist them in making energy efficient design decisions in the early design phase.
This study offers a simulated energy load profile and associated estimation model by iterating individual design parameters while keeping other parameters constant to establish a database that informs a set of heuristic rules for energy effective green home design.
The problem of obtaining optimal goals related to features representing a large number of variables and non-linear objective functions is known as an NP-hard problem.
Deriving optimal combinations of architectural components while considering energy efficiency and cost is a puzzle that cannot be solved effectively using traditional optimization techniques. A heuristic method can be one of the most effective solutions.
Heuristic refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery that offer a solution that is not guaranteed to be optimal but may be an efficient solution. Where an exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods can speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution by mental shortcuts to ease the cognitive load of decision-making.
Heuristic methodology can also be used for deriving an optimized design solution considering energy consumption or cost reduction in the field of building energy. By establishing energy sensitive heuristic rules, architects and designers can determine the best alternative that will minimize the energy load.
To do this, it is necessary to evaluate the energy effects of each architectural component by performing a sensitivity analysis of the parameters influencing energy consumption in apartment buildings. According to previous studies [ 89 ], the sensitivity method evaluates the relationship between variations in output parameters and is used to solve optimization problems with numerous combination tests.
To investigate a given feature as the subject of analysis in a complex model, the target factor must be iteratively changed and evaluated while other parameters remain fixed. The sensitivity method is often utilized in the fields of mathematics and control engineering, as in [ 10 ].
In economics, the concept of elasticity is used to estimate the sensitivity and responsiveness of a system [ 10 ]. Many studies using sensitivity analysis have been conducted to determine various design parameters that affect building energy consumption.
They analyzed important input design factors from the perspective of annual building energy consumption. Several options for constructive parameters have been explored for energy efficient building design.
Sensitivity analysis has been used to derive the estimated cooling and heating loads to examine more precise values for those inputs that have a greater influence on the total thermal load.
A heuristic methodology based on sensitivity analysis is useful for evaluating the thermal performance of a building and identifying the level of uncertainty in building energy simulation results.
This approach has a limitation in solving a non-linear problem in a building thermal environment, the sensitivity analysis can provide appropriate information for determining the best alternative for a given situation [ 10111213 ].
Research Methodology This study focuses on discovering the effect of various parameters with different characteristics in various combinations. Input parameters are analyzed in terms of thermal performance of buildings that will inform a set of heuristic rules for energy-efficient building design.
Generally, cooling systems receive little consideration in the design phase in Korean climatic environment because the yearly cooling period is shorter than the heating period and because Koreans generally prefer floor heating systems.
Therefore, we explore heating energy usage in Korean apartment buildings by utilizing a building energy simulation. First, we conducted an extensive background study to choose proper parameters that have a potential impact on energy performance in Korean apartment buildings.
In addition, the various research papers, as well as guidelines such as domestic regulation and policy for the Korean environment, are intensively analyzed to reflect the energy characteristics of apartment buildings in Korea. Second, we performed building energy simulation tests with selected parameters and information and derived passive design heuristic rules in accordance with thermal performance.
Third, energy-sensitive factors with validation processes were performed to deduce influence factors and create an energy sensitive performance model from a simulated energy load profile.
We conducted a case study to verify the proposed design decision model. As shown in Figure 1this study is organized as follows: Step 1, Section 3 surveys the background works for the parametric study; Step 2, Section 4 describes performed building energy simulations; Step 3, Section 5 derives a modeling framework of energy-sensitive residential building passive design factors with its validation process and then an energy-efficient residential building design decision support model based on the heuristic rules is established.
Research method diagram for energy-efficient design decision support model. Background Works for Parametric Study Candidate technologies must be extracted through an extensive review of the literature, and key parameters for design decision support based on energy sensitive heuristic rules and solutions must be identified before a building energy simulation is performed.
There are many studies on gas and energy consumption issues that consider the major characteristics of apartment buildings [ 2345678914151617181920212223 ].
Analyzing the energy sensitive factors of apartment buildings, including the facility and building features, are investigated with a variety of constituents.Physics coursework; Insulation The aim of this experiment is to investigate the affects on the rate of heat conduction under different insulations.
Materials that prevent heat loss are called insulators. Essay on Investigating Insulation - Investigating Insulation Aim: To find out what type of insulation holds the most heat for a can containing heated water.
PLAN What factors will you be changing. The types of insulation For what factor will you be recording readings. The term heat and the associated phrases such as heat flow, heat addition, heat rejection, heat absorption, heat gain, heat loss, heat storage, heat generation, electrical heating, latent heat, body heat, and heat source are in common use today, and the attempt to replace heat in these phrases by thermal energy had only limited success.5/5(2).
The walls give the biggest heat loss, followed by the doors and windows, the roof, and the floor. Why does heat escape from your home in the first place? To understand that, it helps to know a little bit about the science of heat. As you probably know, heat travels in three different ways by processes called conduction, convection, and radiation.
Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach - Yunus a. Cengel. Uploaded by vinodkonatham Related Interests The problems under the Design and Essay Problems title are intended to encourage students to make engineering judgments, to conduct independent exploration of topics of interest, and to communicate their findings in a professional manner 5/5(2).
Physics coursework; Insulation The aim of this experiment is to investigate the affects on the rate of heat conduction under different insulations.
Materials that prevent heat loss are called insulators.