Freedom beyond mountains

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Freedom beyond mountains

Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. Any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill.

Mountain formation and List of mountain types Freedom beyond mountains are three main types of mountains: Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain.

Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes Geological cross-section of Fuji volcano Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate Freedom beyond mountains, or at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot.

When the magma reaches the surface, it often builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. The magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: Fold mountains Main article: Fold mountains Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: Thus the continental crust is normally much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.

The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: The Jura Mountains are an example of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: When rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain.

The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned.

Freedom beyond mountains

Erosion Kitty Ann Mountain is an eroded mountain in the Ramapo mountain range in New Jersey and New York During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion water, wind, ice, and gravity which gradually wear the uplifted area down.

Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Plateau mountains, such as the Catskillsare formed from the erosion of an uplifted plateau.

The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent typically waterfollowed by the flow away of that solution.

Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimeters, or for thousands of kilometers. Alpine climate A combination of high latitude and high altitude makes the northern Urals in picture to have climatic conditions that make the ground barren.

Climate in the mountains becomes colder at high elevationsdue an interaction between radiation and convection.

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Sunlight in the visible spectrum hits the ground and heats it. The ground then heats the air at the surface.

Freedom beyond mountains

Thus, hot air tends to rise and transfer heat upward. This is the process of convection. Convection comes to equilibrium when a parcel at air at a given altitude has the same density as its surroundings. Air is a poor conductor of heat, so a parcel of air will rise and fall without exchanging heat.

This is known as an adiabatic processwhich has a characteristic pressure-temperature dependence. As the pressure gets lower, the temperature decreases.

The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation is known as the adiabatic lapse ratewhich is approximately 9. Water vapor contains latent heat of vaporization.

As air rises and cools, it eventually becomes saturated and cannot hold its quantity of water vapor.

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The water vapor condenses forming cloudsand releases heat, which changes the lapse rate from the dry adiabatic lapse rate to the moist adiabatic lapse rate 5. The peaks of mountains with permanent snow can have a biotemperature below 1.

Ecology An alpine mire in the Swiss Alps The colder climate on mountains affects the plants and animals residing on mountains. A particular set of plants and animals tend to be adapted to a relatively narrow range of climate.

Thus, ecosystems tend to lie along elevation bands of roughly constant climate. This is called altitudinal zonation. These isolated ecological systems are known as sky islands.

At the highest elevations, trees cannot grow, and whatever life may be present will be of the alpine type, resembling tundra. In the temperate portions of the earth, those forests tend to be needleleaf trees, while in the tropics, they can be broadleaf trees growing in a rain forest.America, The Beautiful Lyrics.

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